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Triton

Description

  • Triton은 Pin 기반의 Concolic execution framework 입니다.
  • Triton은 다음과 같은 구성요소를 제공합니다.
    • 해당 요소들을 기반으로 자동화된 Reverse engineering 과 Vulnerability research 도구를 만들 수 있습니다.
      • Taint engine
      • Dynamic symbolic execution engine
      • Snapshot engine
      • x64 명령어를 SMT2-LIB IR로 변환
      • Z3 interface
      • Python bindings
  • Triton을 이용해 다음과 같은 작업이 가능합니다.
    • 디버깅
    • 구체적인 정보를 이용해 분석
    • Symbolic execution
    • Symbolic fuzzing session
    • 경로 제약 조건 생성 및 해결
    • 코드 적용 범위 수집
    • 레지스터 및 메모리 실시간 수정
    • 이 외에도 다양한 작업들이 가능합니다.

Install

  • Triton은 Linux, OSX, Windows,등 을 지원합니다.
  • Triton을 설치하기 위해 우선 다음 라이브러리들이 설치되어 있어야 합니다.
  • 다음과 같이 Triton을 설치할 수 있습니다.
Ubuntu 16.04(64bit)
lazenca0x0@ubuntu:~/Documents/triton$ wget http://software.intel.com/sites/landingpage/pintool/downloads/pin-2.14-71313-gcc.4.4.7-linux.tar.gz
lazenca0x0@ubuntu:~/Documents/triton$ tar zxf pin-2.14-71313-gcc.4.4.7-linux.tar.gz
lazenca0x0@ubuntu:~/Documents/triton$ cd pin-2.14-71313-gcc.4.4.7-linux/source/tools
lazenca0x0@ubuntu:~/Documents/triton/pin-2.14-71313-gcc.4.4.7-linux/source/tools$ git clone https://github.com/JonathanSalwan/Triton.git
lazenca0x0@ubuntu:~/Documents/triton/pin-2.14-71313-gcc.4.4.7-linux/source/tools$ cd Triton
lazenca0x0@ubuntu:~/Documents/triton/pin-2.14-71313-gcc.4.4.7-linux/source/tools/Triton$ mkdir build
lazenca0x0@ubuntu:~/Documents/triton/pin-2.14-71313-gcc.4.4.7-linux/source/tools/Triton$ cd build
lazenca0x0@ubuntu:~/Documents/triton/pin-2.14-71313-gcc.4.4.7-linux/source/tools/Triton/build$ sudo apt-get update
lazenca0x0@ubuntu:~/Documents/triton/pin-2.14-71313-gcc.4.4.7-linux/source/tools/Triton/build$ sudo apt-get install libcapstone-dev libboost-all-dev libz3-dev
lazenca0x0@ubuntu:~/Documents/triton/pin-2.14-71313-gcc.4.4.7-linux/source/tools/Triton/build$ cmake -DPINTOOL=on ..
-- The C compiler identification is GNU 5.4.0
-- The CXX compiler identification is GNU 5.4.0
-- Check for working C compiler: /usr/bin/cc
-- Check for working C compiler: /usr/bin/cc -- works
-- Detecting C compiler ABI info
-- Detecting C compiler ABI info - done
-- Detecting C compile features
-- Detecting C compile features - done
-- Check for working CXX compiler: /usr/bin/c++
-- Check for working CXX compiler: /usr/bin/c++ -- works
-- Detecting CXX compiler ABI info
-- Detecting CXX compiler ABI info - done
-- Detecting CXX compile features
-- Detecting CXX compile features - done
-- Found PythonInterp: /usr/bin/python2.7 (found suitable version "2.7.12", minimum required is "2.7") 
-- Found PythonLibs: /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libpython2.7.so (found suitable version "2.7.12", minimum required is "2.7") 
-- Found Z3 
-- Found CAPSTONE 
-- Boost version: 1.58.0
-- Configuring done
-- Generating done
-- Build files have been written to: /home/lazenca0x0/Documents/triton/pin-2.14-71313-gcc.4.4.7-linux/source/tools/Triton/build
lazenca0x0@ubuntu:~/Documents/triton/Triton/build$ make
...
[100%] Built target taint_reg
lazenca0x0@ubuntu:~/Documents/triton/pin-2.14-71313-gcc.4.4.7-linux/source/tools/Triton/build$

Example

  • 아래 예제들은 Triton 에서 제공하는 Example 입니다.
    • 동일한 내용을 중복으로 설명하는 것은 불필요하다고 생각되기 때문에 추가적인 설명은 작성하지 않겠습니다.
    • 자세한 내용을 위에 작성된 페이지에서 확인가능합니다.
    • 아래에 작성한 예제 이외에도 다양한 예제들이 Github에 있으니, 해당 내용들도 꼭 읽어보시기를 권장합니다.

Tracer

  • 해당 API는 Pintool을 활용합니다.
  • 해당 API는 다음과 같은 기능들을 구현할 수 있습니다.
    • Display IR
    • Runtime Memory Tainting

    • Runtime Register Modification

    • Blacklist images

    • Callback on image
    • Callback on routine
    • Callback on signals
    • Callback on syscalls

Example - callback_syscall.py

  • 해당 예제는 분석 대상 바이너리("crackme_xor" )를 실행하여 호출되는 Syscall 번호를 추출해서 Write함수를 사용하는지 확인합니다.
    • Write함수가 호출되면 해당 함수에 전달되는 인자 값을 출력합니다.
./src/examples/pin/callback_syscall.py
from triton  import *
from pintool import *

def my_callback_syscall_entry(threadId, std):
    if getSyscallNumber(std) == SYSCALL.WRITE:
        arg0 = getSyscallArgument(std, 0)
        arg1 = getSyscallArgument(std, 1)
        arg2 = getSyscallArgument(std, 2)
        print 'sys_write(%x, %x, %x)' %(arg0, arg1, arg2)


if __name__ == '__main__':

    # Set the architecture
    setArchitecture(ARCH.X86_64)

    # Start the symbolic analysis from the Entry point
    startAnalysisFromEntry()

    insertCall(my_callback_syscall_entry, INSERT_POINT.SYSCALL_ENTRY)

    # Run the instrumentation - Never returns
    runProgram()
Output
lazenca0x0@ubuntu:~/Documents/triton/pin-2.14-71313-gcc.4.4.7-linux/source/tools/Triton$ ./build/triton ./src/examples/pin/callback_syscall.py  ./src/samples/crackmes/crackme_xor a
sys_write(1, 1e08010, 5)
fail
lazenca0x0@ubuntu:~/Documents/triton/pin-2.14-71313-gcc.4.4.7-linux/source/tools/Triton$

Example - sym_only_on_tainted.py

  • 해당 예제는 다음과 같은 동작은 합니다.
    • crackme_xor에서 사용하는 check() 함수에 대해서 Tainted 분석만 진행합니다.
    • 분석 대상은 "0x400574" 코드 영역에서 사용되는 rax 레지스터 입니다.
    • 분석을 통해 확인된 심볼릭 식을 출력합니다.
./src/examples/pin/sym_only_on_tainted.py
#!/usr/bin/env python2
## -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
##
## $ ./build/triton ./src/examples/pin/sym_only_on_tainted.py ./src/samples/crackmes/crackme_xor a
##
import sys

from pintool import *
from triton  import *

def cb_ir(inst):
    if inst.getAddress() == 0x400574:
        rax = getCurrentRegisterValue(REG.RAX)
        taintMemory(rax)
    return

def cb_before(inst):
    print inst
    for expr in inst.getSymbolicExpressions():
        print '\t', expr
    return

if __name__ == '__main__':
    # Set arch
    setArchitecture(ARCH.X86_64)

    # Start JIT at the entry point
    startAnalysisFromSymbol('check')

    # Perform symbolic execution only on tainted instructions
    enableMode(MODE.ONLY_ON_TAINTED, True)

    # Add callback
    insertCall(cb_ir,       INSERT_POINT.BEFORE_SYMPROC)
    insertCall(cb_before,   INSERT_POINT.BEFORE)

    # Run Program
    runProgram()
Output
lazenca0x0@ubuntu:~/Documents/triton/pin-2.14-71313-gcc.4.4.7-linux/source/tools/Triton$ ./build/triton ./src/examples/pin/sym_only_on_tainted.py ./src/samples/crackmes/crackme_xor a
0x400556: push rbp
0x400557: mov rbp, rsp
0x40055a: mov qword ptr [rbp - 0x18], rdi
0x40055e: mov dword ptr [rbp - 4], 0
0x400565: jmp 0x4005a6
0x4005a6: cmp dword ptr [rbp - 4], 4
0x4005aa: jle 0x400567
0x400567: mov eax, dword ptr [rbp - 4]
0x40056a: movsxd rdx, eax
0x40056d: mov rax, qword ptr [rbp - 0x18]
0x400571: add rax, rdx
0x400574: movzx eax, byte ptr [rax]
	ref!53 = ((_ zero_extend 32) ((_ zero_extend 24) ((_ extract 7 0) (_ bv97 8)))) ; MOVZX operation
	ref!54 = ((_ zero_extend 0) (_ bv4195703 64)) ; Program Counter
0x400577: movsx eax, al
	ref!55 = ((_ zero_extend 32) ((_ sign_extend 24) ((_ extract 7 0) ref!53))) ; MOVSX operation
	ref!56 = ((_ zero_extend 0) (_ bv4195706 64)) ; Program Counter
0x40057a: sub eax, 1
	ref!57 = ((_ zero_extend 32) (bvsub ((_ extract 31 0) ref!55) (_ bv1 32))) ; SUB operation
	ref!58 = (ite (= (_ bv16 32) (bvand (_ bv16 32) (bvxor ((_ extract 31 0) ref!57) (bvxor ((_ extract 31 0) ref!55) (_ bv1 32))))) (_ bv1 1) (_ bv0 1)) ; Adjust flag
	ref!59 = ((_ extract 31 31) (bvxor (bvxor ((_ extract 31 0) ref!55) (bvxor (_ bv1 32) ((_ extract 31 0) ref!57))) (bvand (bvxor ((_ extract 31 0) ref!55) ((_ extract 31 0) ref!57)) (bvxor ((_ extract 31 0) ref!55) (_ bv1 32))))) ; Carry flag
	ref!60 = ((_ extract 31 31) (bvand (bvxor ((_ extract 31 0) ref!55) (_ bv1 32)) (bvxor ((_ extract 31 0) ref!55) ((_ extract 31 0) ref!57)))) ; Overflow flag
	ref!61 = (bvxor (bvxor (bvxor (bvxor (bvxor (bvxor (bvxor (bvxor (_ bv1 1) ((_ extract 0 0) (bvlshr ((_ extract 7 0) ref!57) (_ bv0 8)))) ((_ extract 0 0) (bvlshr ((_ extract 7 0) ref!57) (_ bv1 8)))) ((_ extract 0 0) (bvlshr ((_ extract 7 0) ref!57) (_ bv2 8)))) ((_ extract 0 0) (bvlshr ((_ extract 7 0) ref!57) (_ bv3 8)))) ((_ extract 0 0) (bvlshr ((_ extract 7 0) ref!57) (_ bv4 8)))) ((_ extract 0 0) (bvlshr ((_ extract 7 0) ref!57) (_ bv5 8)))) ((_ extract 0 0) (bvlshr ((_ extract 7 0) ref!57) (_ bv6 8)))) ((_ extract 0 0) (bvlshr ((_ extract 7 0) ref!57) (_ bv7 8)))) ; Parity flag
	ref!62 = ((_ extract 31 31) ref!57) ; Sign flag
	ref!63 = (ite (= ((_ extract 31 0) ref!57) (_ bv0 32)) (_ bv1 1) (_ bv0 1)) ; Zero flag
	ref!64 = ((_ zero_extend 0) (_ bv4195709 64)) ; Program Counter
0x40057d: xor eax, 0x55
	ref!65 = ((_ zero_extend 32) (bvxor ((_ extract 31 0) ref!57) (_ bv85 32))) ; XOR operation
	ref!66 = (_ bv0 1) ; Clears carry flag
	ref!67 = (_ bv0 1) ; Clears overflow flag
	ref!68 = (bvxor (bvxor (bvxor (bvxor (bvxor (bvxor (bvxor (bvxor (_ bv1 1) ((_ extract 0 0) (bvlshr ((_ extract 7 0) ref!65) (_ bv0 8)))) ((_ extract 0 0) (bvlshr ((_ extract 7 0) ref!65) (_ bv1 8)))) ((_ extract 0 0) (bvlshr ((_ extract 7 0) ref!65) (_ bv2 8)))) ((_ extract 0 0) (bvlshr ((_ extract 7 0) ref!65) (_ bv3 8)))) ((_ extract 0 0) (bvlshr ((_ extract 7 0) ref!65) (_ bv4 8)))) ((_ extract 0 0) (bvlshr ((_ extract 7 0) ref!65) (_ bv5 8)))) ((_ extract 0 0) (bvlshr ((_ extract 7 0) ref!65) (_ bv6 8)))) ((_ extract 0 0) (bvlshr ((_ extract 7 0) ref!65) (_ bv7 8)))) ; Parity flag
	ref!69 = ((_ extract 31 31) ref!65) ; Sign flag
	ref!70 = (ite (= ((_ extract 31 0) ref!65) (_ bv0 32)) (_ bv1 1) (_ bv0 1)) ; Zero flag
	ref!71 = ((_ zero_extend 0) (_ bv4195712 64)) ; Program Counter
0x400580: mov ecx, eax
	ref!72 = ((_ zero_extend 32) ((_ extract 31 0) ref!65)) ; MOV operation
	ref!73 = ((_ zero_extend 0) (_ bv4195714 64)) ; Program Counter
0x400582: mov rdx, qword ptr [rip + 0x200ab7]
0x400589: mov eax, dword ptr [rbp - 4]
0x40058c: cdqe
0x40058e: add rax, rdx
0x400591: movzx eax, byte ptr [rax]
0x400594: movsx eax, al
0x400597: cmp ecx, eax
	ref!92 = (bvsub ((_ extract 31 0) ref!72) ((_ sign_extend 0) (_ bv49 32))) ; CMP operation
	ref!93 = (ite (= (_ bv16 32) (bvand (_ bv16 32) (bvxor ((_ extract 31 0) ref!92) (bvxor ((_ extract 31 0) ref!72) ((_ sign_extend 0) (_ bv49 32)))))) (_ bv1 1) (_ bv0 1)) ; Adjust flag
	ref!94 = ((_ extract 31 31) (bvxor (bvxor ((_ extract 31 0) ref!72) (bvxor ((_ sign_extend 0) (_ bv49 32)) ((_ extract 31 0) ref!92))) (bvand (bvxor ((_ extract 31 0) ref!72) ((_ extract 31 0) ref!92)) (bvxor ((_ extract 31 0) ref!72) ((_ sign_extend 0) (_ bv49 32)))))) ; Carry flag
	ref!95 = ((_ extract 31 31) (bvand (bvxor ((_ extract 31 0) ref!72) ((_ sign_extend 0) (_ bv49 32))) (bvxor ((_ extract 31 0) ref!72) ((_ extract 31 0) ref!92)))) ; Overflow flag
	ref!96 = (bvxor (bvxor (bvxor (bvxor (bvxor (bvxor (bvxor (bvxor (_ bv1 1) ((_ extract 0 0) (bvlshr ((_ extract 7 0) ref!92) (_ bv0 8)))) ((_ extract 0 0) (bvlshr ((_ extract 7 0) ref!92) (_ bv1 8)))) ((_ extract 0 0) (bvlshr ((_ extract 7 0) ref!92) (_ bv2 8)))) ((_ extract 0 0) (bvlshr ((_ extract 7 0) ref!92) (_ bv3 8)))) ((_ extract 0 0) (bvlshr ((_ extract 7 0) ref!92) (_ bv4 8)))) ((_ extract 0 0) (bvlshr ((_ extract 7 0) ref!92) (_ bv5 8)))) ((_ extract 0 0) (bvlshr ((_ extract 7 0) ref!92) (_ bv6 8)))) ((_ extract 0 0) (bvlshr ((_ extract 7 0) ref!92) (_ bv7 8)))) ; Parity flag
	ref!97 = ((_ extract 31 31) ref!92) ; Sign flag
	ref!98 = (ite (= ((_ extract 31 0) ref!92) (_ bv0 32)) (_ bv1 1) (_ bv0 1)) ; Zero flag
	ref!99 = ((_ zero_extend 0) (_ bv4195737 64)) ; Program Counter
0x400599: je 0x4005a2
	ref!100 = ((_ zero_extend 0) (ite (= ((_ extract 0 0) ref!98) (_ bv1 1)) (_ bv4195746 64) (_ bv4195739 64))) ; Program Counter
0x40059b: mov eax, 1
0x4005a0: jmp 0x4005b1
0x4005b1: pop rbp
fail
lazenca0x0@ubuntu:~/Documents/triton/pin-2.14-71313-gcc.4.4.7-linux/source/tools/Triton$ 

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